Sudan is the largest country in Africa and has a special geopolitical location bonding the Arab world to Africa south of the Sahara. It has an area of 2.5 million km2.
Geographic coordinates: 15°00′N 30°00′E
Its north-south extent is about 2 000 km, while its maximum east-west extent is about 1 500 km.
On the north-east it is bordered by the Red Sea and it shares common borders with nine countries: Eritrea and Ethiopia in the east, Kenya, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the south, The Central African Republic, Chad and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in the west, and Egypt in the north. The country is a gently sloping plain with the exception of Jebel Marra, the Red Sea Hills, Nuba Mountains and Imatong Hills.
Its main features are the alluvial clay deposits in the central and eastern part, the stabilized sand dunes in the western and northern part and the red ironstone soils in the south. The soils of Sudan are broadly divided into six main categories according to their locations and manner of formation: i) desert; ii) semi-desert; iii) sand; iv) alkaline catena; v) alluvial; and vi) iron stone plateau. Within these soil categories there are many local variations with respect to drainage conditions.
The length of Sudan's borders is 6,751 kilometers. Border countries are:
Central African Republic (175 km)
Chad (1,360 km)
Egypt (1,275 km)
Eritrea (605 km)
Ethiopia (769 km)
Libya (383 km)
South Sudan (2,184 km)
Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan.There is also concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservationmeasures. The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table.
The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp, northern white rhinoceros, tora hartebeest, slender-horned gazelle, and hawksbill turtle. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.
The country's soils can be divided geographically into three categories. These are the sandy soils of the northern and west central areas, the clay soils of the central region, and the laterite soils of the south. Less extensive and widely separated, but of major economic importance, is a fourth group consisting of alluvial soils found along the lower reaches of the White Nile and Blue Nile rivers, along the main Nile to Lake Nubia, in the delta of the Qash River in the Kassala area, and in the Baraka Delta in the area of Tawkar near the Red Sea in Ash Sharqi State.